Maronite Hegemony to Maronite Militancy: The Creation and Disintegration of Lebanon

Author: Elaine C. Hagopian

Publisher/Publication: Third World Quarterly

Volume/Issue: 11(4)


This article aims at describing the ideological evolution of Maronitism, an ideology similar to Zionism, which ultimately led to the Maronite militancy in the 1970s and 1980s and the disintegration of Lebanon. It explains how the demographic changes and the rise of the Lebanese National Movement in the 1960s and 1970s threatened the Maronite hegemony, secured upon Lebanese independence, thus making Maronite leaders turn to more exclusive ideologies and aiming at “clearing” the unwanted from their land, using Israel as a role model. It concludes that Maronite insistence on confessionalism lead to a weak state that was further burdened by the Palestinian issue and Shia discontent.